acks in Honolulu while on a tour of duty with the US Army Reserve, in addition to having held a wide variety of civilian positions. Dr. Bortz is a marathoner and has participated in the Greek Marathon, five Boston Marathons and other distance races. He has published extensively in medical journals, besides having written articles for Runners World magazine.
(Continued from page 89) sense our machines are ahead of their time because they are designed for computer capability but we don’t foresee a demand for that for a few years yet.
“The SX2 line is the best on the market because with microprocessors we have effectively eliminated the need for an instructor or a training partner. And we’re the only ones with a separate negative mode built into the machine.”
They’re also the only machines to feature a digital display which, like a pocket calculator, allows you to press a series of buttons to fix your positive and negative resistances. A digital readout scores the quality of your set taking into account your strength, intensity, speed and rest time. The digital display also indicates the number of sets in a rep, the duration and your single strongest exertion during a set.
The line encompasses 10 machines for various bodyparts. Each provides hydraulic resistance powered by electricity.
With the arm curl machine, for example, you can punch in a positive resistance of, say, 100 pounds, and a negative resistance that’s much heavier. As you complete the positive half of the movement, the negative mode activates and actually pulls your forearms down. It is up to you to slow its rate of descent.
The scoring mode measures the amount of force exerted in all phases of the movement. The greater your effort the higher you score. If you rest for a second or two at the end of a rep you’ll lose points.
“Scoring high can be a great motivator,” Schmidt says. “You can try to beat your own record, the gym record, or your training partner’s score. With a score to beat you don’t need someone standing over you screaming to do another rep.”
Aside from all the high-tech wizardry, Schmidt claims you will gain muscle and strength three times faster using the SX2 line than any other. Why?
“Negative resistance,” he says. “You’ll make better gains with nega-
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Fillmore Foods Inc., 3138 Depot Road, Hayward, CA 94545, Telephone 415/783-5855cepted for the piano student, athlete and cook. “Use it or lose it” is a pervasive biologic law, the application of which has received insufficient attention where the human body is concerned. Medicine particularly has been slow to recognize the benefits of exercise in a number of disease states. A few years ago, Paul White was thought to be an iconoclast for advocating an activity program for coronary disease. R.A.J. Asher, in the British Medical Journal, earnestly implores us:
Teach us to live that we may dread Unnecessary time in bed. Get people up and we may save Our patients from an early grave. The point of this survey is not to presume that physical inactivity is the cause of the aging process. It is wrong to suggest that exercise might halt the fall of the grains of sand in the hourglass. It is proposed, however, that the dimension of the aperture may be responsive to the toning influence of physical activity, and consequently the sand may drain more slowly. A physically active life may allow us to approach our true biogenetic potential for longevity.
It is fair to observe that Homo sapiens has never had the opportunity to test the hypothesis relating exercise to longevity. Survival of the fittest to an advanced age is really untested. Through the long eons in which our forebears were physically active as a necessity of survival, they died of starvation, injury and infection. In our current golf-cart age in which two of these major historic killers are largely controlled, we die of degenerative diseases, on which the impact of our physical inactivity may be considerable.
It is to be hoped that not only may an active life allow us to live longer, but that the added years may be vigorous ones. Attenuated senility or, in the phrase of [the French-American bacteriologist] Renee Dubos, “medicated survival” is a destiny to be avoided.
It is proposed that a life actively lived gives the brightest promise for us to enjoy the later ” ‘best’ years for which the first were made.” By ensuring fitness, physical and mental, we may maintain our functional integrity and vigor, and thereby approach the idealized square-edge existence to which we all aspire. D
Dr. Walter M. Bortz II, presidentelect of the American Geriatric Society, is on the staff of the Palo Alto Medical Clinic in Palo Alto, California. A graduate (cum laude) of Williams College and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, he served as regimental surgeon at Schofield
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(Continued from page 84) sperm production.
Another regulatory mechanism that is altered with aging and inactivity is the maintenance of body temperature controls. One research group reported a one-degree temperature fall after a 56-day bed-rest study.
Disturbance in the structure and function of the central nervous system is common to both aging and inactivity. One research group reported that there is slowing of the dominant frequency of EEG [brain waves] in healthy elderly subjects. Bed rest is also accompanied by similar EEG abnormalities and behavior changes. A research group commented that these findings are “similar in many respects to those occurring after prolonged sensory and perceptual deprivation.” An exercise program prevents these abnormalities.
Deteriorative changes in sense organ function have been described in connection with aging and inactivity. Both hearing and taste are reported to decline with aging and inactivity. Of anecdotal interest is the stated delay in the rate of decay of the sense of smell in professional perfume sniffers. Although I can find no evidence that in-
creased use of the eyes and ears results in higher degrees of sensitivity, the absolute necessity for light in the development of the ganglion cells of the retina has been demonstrated. The often-reported hearing improvement of blind persons cannot be established.
The aging process is often, but not invariably, associated with deterioration of intellectual capacity. It has been vividly shown that when one portion of the brain’s cortex is set to a task, there is a compensating increase in metabolic and circulatory intensity. This demonstrates clearly that increased use is met by supporting and sustaining reaction, i.e., activity generates activity. With this as background, it is important to note that a research project showed that rats raised in an enriched environment with numerous stimuli not only learned mazes faster, but have increased brain weight and branching of dendrites. Such a finding was predicted by the Spanish his-tologist Santiago Ramon y Cajal in 1911.
It is challenging to inquire whether some of the deteriorative mental capacities of aging may be due to disuse rather than disease.
Although there are well-described structural and functional changes in
the aging lung and kidney, there are no reported comparable alterations in the organs during inactivity or weightlessness. Nor is there any evidence that the renal and pulmonary changes of aging can be improved by an exercise program.
It has long been established that the vigor of the immune system decreases with age. How much this decrease participates in the total spectrum of changes seen in the process of aging has been the subject of much conjecture. Yet, once again, physical inactivity shares this deterioration. Workers reported a series of immunologic defects in a group of men subjected to 62 days of bed rest. These changes were offset by exercise performed during the bed rest.
Some years ago, my 35-year-old right leg was placed in a cast as the result of an Achilles tendon tear. Removal of the plaster six weeks later disclosed a leg that had all the appearances of one belonging to a person 40 years older. It was withered, stiff and painful. This association of disuse and accelerated aging was striking. Such involution is representative of a process that applies to many body tissues and functions. It also applies to the whole-body level, where the principle of “practice makes perfect” is ac-
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TRAINING TIPS FROM MISS OLYMPIA
• If you feel like missing a workout, you
should at least get in your car and
drive to the gym. Do five light sets and
walk out; you’ll be farther ahead than if
you had remained at home. Do high
reps, and play on new machines as if
they were toys. Sometimes this results
in a great workout. If it doesn’t, go
home, relax, drink a glass of wine and
take up the next day where you left off.
• Be observant and open to new
knowledge. I personally gain some
thing from everyone I meet. Even if a
person is a bum, he can teach me
- Keep a detailed training and nutrition diary. It’s the best way of making sense of the confusing array of information and techniques that confront any bodybuilder. I write down everything — every set I do, every morsel I consume, how I look to myself, how I feel, and every other bit of info I feel might have an effect on my bodybuilding.
- I could care less what I weigh. What counts is the quality of muscular development. I’ve weighed 118 and looked fat, and I’ve weighed 123 and been in great shape. The judges don’t weigh you, so your weight is irrelevant. To be a winner you have to keep the muscle mass up and the fat down.
- Don’t be afraid to sweat. I like the feeling of sweating during an all-out workout. Sweating is very good for you — it cleanses your body of toxins from the inside out. There’s nothing un-feminine about sweat during a bodybuilding workout.
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THE “F” PLAN
(Continued from page 110)
fluids. Between five and 10 glasses of water per day are recommended.
2) Maintain electrolyte levels — Diet Plan F is designed to help maintain levels of vital mineral electrolytes, such as potassium, that are necessary for proper nerve and muscle contraction. Those wishing to fortify their diets with even greater electrolyte levels may use one of Weider’s three mega paks. These are ALIVE Mega Pak just for women, and Good Life and BodyGro Mega Paks for both men and women. All are fortified with electrolytes.
3) Remember: If you get hungry, don’t binge. Drink another glass of Firmaloss (preferably with water). Its nutrition will give you true satisfaction.
4) Also, don’t forget to maintain
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firm believer that everything happens to you for a purpose.”
Rachel McLish’s final mental technique involves psyching herself up before each workout: “On the way to the gym I think about a variety of things that give me greater drive.
“Often good rock music will do it. At other times I get psyched up by listening to classical music or my inspirational religious cassette tapes or by thinking about my competitors and how good they are. And, I sometimes think about my parents, all they’ve done for me over the years, and how it’s now my turn to give them something back.
“All these methods work in rotation, and the variety is again important. The mind can also quickly adapt to a certain psyching stimulus and become inured to it, so you should never stick to any one psyching method.”
Assuming a Successful Pose
As hinted earlier, Rachel feels that she needs much more work on her posing. “Believe me, I haven’t begun to tap my potential. I used to dance in public, practicing for hours every day and loving every minute of it, and I’m sure I can do the same with my posing.
“For most of the year I ignore my entire routine, working instead on short series of poses. I get comfortable with moving from pose to pose — regardless of sequence — so I can look fluid onstage even if I deviate from my set routine. This way I can improvise a routine if something happens onstage to interrupt my normal program.
“One of the most exciting aspects of posing is that, as my body becomes more completely developed, I can do many poses that I couldn’t pull off previously. For example, it’s only in the past few months that I’ve been able to do a good three-quarters back shot.
“I’m careful to watch all the contestants at each show when I guest pose to pick up ideas. I was in Trinidad recently, and they posed spectacularly there, incorporating theatrics and facial expressions into their routines. Some of the things I learned there will be included in my future routines.”
As our interview drew to a close, I noticed that Rachel had thick calluses on each hand.
“I’m proud of them,” she laughed. “Many people seem to have the idea that I don’t train hard. Calluses are an integral part of bodybuilding, and they verify the fact that I train extremely hard and use very heavy weights in my workouts.”
With her unique combination of femininity and muscular development, Rachel McLish has shown how a woman bodybuilder should look. We
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In answer to my question about supplement usage, Rachel replied, “I’m a firm believer in over-supplementation, but only in the water-soluble vitamins and minerals. I don’t supplement my diet with extra A, D, E or K, the oil-soluble vitamins, but I take in plenty of B vitamins, C and chelated minerals.”
Turning to the mental aspect of bodybuilding, Rachel told me that she has a very clear vision of how she wants her physique to ultimately appear: “Because I can visualize a part of my physique much more easily than the whole, I like to think of only one or two bodyparts. Usually, I visualize primarily those muscle groups that I feel are weak in the manner I’d like them to soon appear. When I spot a lagging bodypart, I become almost obsessed with bringing it up.
“Or I occasionally pick on something that isn’t up to par — such as my posing now — and I give it intense attention. It’s only prior to a competition that I can maintain everything at a high pitch, but even then I can go at this accelerated pace only for a few weeks before faltering.”
Rachel also has a very rational approach to goal setting: “If you think of something too mind-boggling — such as winning a major international competition — you probably won’t achieve it. I’ve found it best to break my long-term goals into smaller, short-range goals.
“I used to become discouraged occasionally because I was gaining muscle mass so slowly, as is the case with most women bodybuilders. Now I prefer to train for quality development rather than for pure mass because the mass will ultimately come if I follow this approach.”
This concept is similar to something Frank Zane recently told me: “Regardless of how negative something like losing a competition seems at the time, you can turn it into positive energy. A loss just gives me greater incentive to keep training hard.”
“I can agree with that,” Rachel smiled. “Losing the ’81 Olympia was one of the best things that could have happened to me because reliving the experience has given me so much drive, enthusiasm and training energy that it’s pushed me to new heights of development. Also, an occasional loss keeps a bodybuilder from getting too cocky.
“Rex Dante, my memory dynamics teacher, called this process ‘turning the dial.’ You turn a negative experience into something positive. I’m a
variation of an exercise that stresses the part of a muscle that most needs additional development.”
I asked Rachel how she learned all these exercise performance variations.
“I’ve learned over more than six years of steady training and experimentation exactly which method hits every part of my physique, just as every aspiring woman bodybuilder must. I used to spend up to 15 hours a day working in the Sport Palace of Harlingen, Texas, and I didn’t want to become bored. So I filled my unoccupied time by experimenting with every possible exercise on each available piece of equipment.
“Very few women realize that I have so many years of training and learning behind me. All the years you put into your training can yield so much more when you consciously use your brain to get the most out of each exercise. Think about how you can do a movement differently to achieve a different muscle contraction specificity in the area it works, and in the long run you’ll be light years ahead of the bodybuilders who don’t.”
I asked Rachel if she practiced ISO-Tension contraction during her pre-contest preparation phase.
“Yes, and it’s resulted in a marked improvement in my muscle quality,” she answered. “I do a high number of hard repetition muscle flexes each day, both between sets in a workout and at odd times of the day — driving my car, grocery shopping, at dinner and whenever else I think of it. I believe that any woman can harden up and gain better control of her muscles if she uses ISO-Tension consistently when peaking for a competition.”
Aerobics in Training
My last question on training was how much aerobic exercise Rachel included in her daily training schedule. She answered, “Aerobic workouts are an essential facet of my training philosophy, although it took me a while to realize their importance. Prior to my first competition, I had been teaching aerobic dance classes, and I was very tight-looking as a result. After I really got into bodybuilding, however, I did less and less aerobic training.
“When I began meeting all the champs I’d read so much about in muscle & fitness, I learned many new training techniques from them. This led to a series of experiments, during which I neglected my aerobics, which in turn made it more difficult to get cut up for a competition. This past year, however, I’ve gone back to doing more aerobic classes.
“During a defining phase, I in-
crease my aerobic activity, doing at least a solid two hours of aerobics, and often up to three hours. I tend to stick to playing racquetball, taking aerobic classes, cycling and running, and of course I rotate these aerobic activities from day to day. For best results I also need variety in my aerobic sessions.” The closer a competition, the more crucial diet becomes, but Rachel is no fanatic: “I do enough aerobic training that I never need to go under 1500 calories per day, even prior to competing. It took me a long time to understand that I have to eat to have both mass and quality onstage. And this realization has been a key factor in my improvement recently.
Peaking Through Sacrifice
“Last year I fasted a lot when preparing for competition. I lost all my bodyfat this way, but I also had to sacrifice a great deal of lean body mass because I wasn’t eating enough to support a proper degree of muscle mass. I got ripped up through fasting, but I didn’t have the fullness and shapeliness of muscle mass that I need to appear at my best.”
Rachel even drinks wine during a contest preparation phase: “It’s good for relaxation, and I really enjoy quality white wines and champagne. You really don’t have to sacrifice that much in getting ready for a contest If you go about it intelligently.
“A number of bodybuilders monitor their water balances, but I like to play with mine in the days leading up to a competition. When you are on a low-salt diet all the time, your body will adapt to it and respond in an exaggerated manner by retaining a great deal of water any time you take in a little salt. Having learned this, I ate a ton of salt a week before the last Olympia. I would drink a margarita and eat potato chips and pizza, and I was bloated.
“Because I was bloated with water, no one who saw me a week before the Olympia could believe I was entering. Then for a couple of days before the show I monitored my salt intake very closely, and my body released all of the water it had been holding. By tricking my body this way, I ended up looking very tight and muscular.”
Rachel is a closet chocoholic, but never abuses her body by eating junk food without a purpose. “I have occasional cravings,” she confessed, “and they are usually a good indication that my body requires the nutrients I crave. Yesterday I ate three scoops of chocolate ice cream, and when I reviewed my diary notes, I saw that I consumed very little fat over the previous four days. My body was craving the fats in
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Muscle & Fitness 179
FRANCO COLUMBU’S COMPLETE BOOK OF BODYBUILDING
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ITS HARD TO BE
WHEN JOUR GREAT
(Continued from page 81)
women bodybuilders, but I am sure that my intensity within each set is higher than average. I always try to make every set count.
“My thighs and calves come up very easily, but I still do plenty of high-intensity sets for them to achieve hardness and detail. Many women with naturally big thighs mistakenly stop exercising them. They’d be better off training them hard, because you must keep overloading them to give the thighs shape and quality. I just work my legs with higher-than-normal reps
— 12-15 in the off-season and 15-20
prior to a contest — to keep them from
becoming too massive.
“My forearms also respond quickly, particularly because I play a lot of racquetball. Rather than increasing the reps on my forearm exercises, however, I do fewer total sets, normally no more than three or four each workout. So, you can see that you have alternative ways to treat strong muscle groups
— perform higher reps, or do less total
Rachel normally keeps her reps — except for thighs and abdominals — in the 6-8 range in the off-season and up to 10-12 prior to competing. And, during the workouts we’ve taken to-
gether, I’ve observed that virtually every repetition is of very high quality. At times she’ll do forced reps, while at others she does a lot of burns to push her muscles past the point of failure. These burns are partial reps with a range of motion only six to eight inches, usually in peak contraction.
“Peak contraction reps and burns are particularly effective for building muscle mass and quality,” the current World Professional Champion added. “But in harmony with my philosophy of injecting a maximum degree of variety into my training, this also changes from workout to workout. Going past the point of normal muscular failure with forced reps or burns is fine, but I certainly don’t push all my sets that far. Remember, keep your muscles off-balance, and they’ll keep growing.
“I also like to do supersets, especially when there is a time factor and I have to get a workout over as quickly as I can without sacrificing intensity. I particularly like to perform pre-exhaustion supersets. Typical pre-exhaustion exercise groupings include side laterals with overhead presses, cable crossovers with decline presses and leg extensions with squats or leg presses.”
The Most from Technique
I’ve noticed that Rachel injects vari-
ety into her workouts not only through choice of exercises, but also through uniquely different methods of doing each exercise. When I asked her to explain why she performed each exercise differently, her answer was typically insightful and clear.
“The reason can be boiled down to three words — muscle contraction specificity. You must do a movement a particular way if you want to achieve a predetermined appearance of the muscle it affects.
“If you place your feet wide apart as you do squats, for example, it stresses the inner thigh muscles, particularly higher up, while a narrow stance hits the central section and outer sweep of the quads. Doing squats with your toes angled outward places stronger stress on the vastus medialis muscle on the inside of your thigh just above the knees. Done with your toes pointed slightly inward, squats stress the lower and outer sections of your thighs.
“Such performance variations exist for virtually every exercise, and I do every possible variation in my workouts, particularly prior to a competition. Then, I want to hit a muscle group from every possible angle to promote complete development. At other times, I proceed in accordance with my muscle contraction specificity principle — I most frequently use the performance
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is systemic, or throughout the body, the systemic nature of weight training, combined with proper diet, is the best way to attack fat.Overtraining and chronic fatigue are avoided in weight training because recuperation is part of the regimen. The Weider Split Cycle Training Principle is one example of how the muscles are given a chance to recover and grow between exercise sessions. 4) Practical Application. The primary goal for most individuals who exercise is complete fitness, which can be defined as balanced overall strength, injury and disease resistance, an energetic feeling and an improved mental outlook. Moreover, this fitness can be a factor in everyday life beyond the gym or running track.
|Send now for your brand new 1983 catalogueTo: Weider Health and Fitness, Craven House, 22 Church Street, Godalming, Surrey.
Enclosing a large S.A. E.
of the regimen as lifting weights. Technique dictates that undue stress be avoided — if a weight is too heavy to lift with proper form, it is heavy enough to cause injury. When an exercise is performed with proper form, the muscles do the work and there’s no pressure nor pounding on the joints. Even when advanced bodybuilders “go to failure,” there’s no chance of joint damage since the exhausted muscle will not contract. Without the contraction, the joint isn’t brought into play. Nutrition is part of weight training. Perhaps in no other sport does the athlete pay as much detailed, strict attention to the makeup of his or her diet. Every necessary facet of good nutrition is learned and followed by the dedicated bodybuilder. And since fat
A wide range of Weider equipment, power packed food supplements, books, magazines, T-shirts and training gear is available from Weider Health and Fitness shops. Call and see us soon !
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Exercise affects personal appearance. The pounding, draining pressure of jogging leaves its adherents looking drawn. Weight athletes fill out their bodies by shaping and toning their muscles, so look younger than their actual years. Joggers suffer constant physical ailments, and this affects their attitudes and concentration. Bodybuilders have an unmistakable aura of self-confidence, and their work reflects their industrious-ness and improved power of concentration.
The medical world is coming to appreciate not only the physical effectiveness of bodybuilding, but also its contributions to the understanding of nutrition and relaxation. Weight training is stress relieving rather than stress building, and allows each individual to develop within his or her ability.
Jogging has its benefits, and if done on a yielding surface (grass or sand rather than pavement), it’s less stressful to the joints. As one part of a complete fitness program, jogging can be valuable, but as the sole means of achieving fitness, it falls short.
For a scientifically designed and proven method of gaining complete fitness, holistic weight training, which includes aerobics and good nutrition, is the obvious choice. It’s time those 6 million joggers learned what the 1.7 million readers of muscle & fitness already know. D
(Continued from page 119)
(up to one year of training)
1) Leg presses, 4-6X10-15.
2) Leg extensions, 4-5X10-15.
3) Leg curls, 6-8X10-15.
4) Squats, 3-4X10-15.
(over one year of training)
1) Squats, 4-5X15-10.
2) Hack squats, 4-5X15-10.
3) Leg extensions, 4-5X15-10.
4) Lunges, 3-4X15-10.
5) Standing leg curls, 4-5X15-10.
6) Lying leg curls, 4-5X15-10.
“Because the thigh muscles are the largest in the human body, it can be murder to train them,” The Case concluded. “During a fast, heavy leg workout, the muscles burn like the fires of Hell, so thigh training separates the men from the boys (or the women from the girls). Stick with this hard training, however, and your rewards will be great. Through blood, toil, tears and sweat, you’ll build a pair of hugely muscled, slashed-to-ribbons thighs!” □
174 Muscle & Fitness
bodybuilding, is scientifically designed to strengthen all your muscles so that you’ll develop symmetrically and proportionally. Because each muscle is exercised through a full range of motion, and because muscles and muscle groups can be isolated, maximum strength is developed.
Joggers have greater endurance for their sport and can sustain similar aerobic activities for long periods. Strength athletes develop muscular endurance — that is, they can handle strength challenges of a brief duration many times during an extended period. In relation to strength endurance, a weight athlete who incorporates aerobics into his or her regular routine receives the endurance advantages of both exercise types.
Flexibility is what bodybuilders allegedly give up when they get big muscles; joggers maintain an image of being as flexible as Gumby dolls. Stretching as part of the warm-up and cool-down periods is part of both exercise philosophies, but stretching isn’t the only factor here. Flexibility is the ease and efficiency with which a joint moves. Joints are moved by muscular contractions in combination with a relaxation of the opposing muscle group. The process is reversed to re-
turn the joint to its original position. Overall strength development creates a “balance of power” between the opposing muscle groups. This adds to coordination as well as flexibility, and helps resist injuries to the joints.
Joggers don’t develop overall strength, nor is their leg strength balanced. The limited range of motion in jogging prohibits complete muscle contraction for full “flexing” of the joint. Stress is also placed on joints in jogging; in weight training the stress is on the muscles. The growth syndrome caused by weight training extends from the muscle into tendons and bones. A competitive bodybuilder might not be able to curl into odd yoga positions, but he or she doesn’t suffer from aching joints and is rarely hampered by joint injuries.
3) Technique. How you do something affects the results. Jogging is a simple form of exercise — it involves running slowly. How does this exercise, even when properly performed, promote strength? What are the signals to the body?
The muscular action involves pushing off and moving each leg forward, which develops calves and quadriceps. The joint action is a response to a pressure of three times the jogger’s
weight on the landing leg. The sudden compression of landing begins with the spinal discs, which can slip or pinch a nerve. The head of the femur, or thigh bone, separates slightly from the hip socket.
The 13 ligaments that aid in the stability of the knee can be strained or torn, as can two cartilage discs there called menisci, if downward pressure on the knee is at a radical angle to the supporting lower leg and foot. Cartilage protecting the kneecap can be made soft and rough by the pressure. This condition, chondromalacia, is so common among joggers it is referred to as “runner’s knee.”
In jogging, the ankles and foot bones undergo great stress with each footfall. Joggers regularly complain of shinsplints, heel spurs, Achilles tendinitis and sciatic nerve irregularities.
No other athletic endeavor has undergone such scientific development during the past three decades as weight training. The applied scientists of the sport, such as its foremost practitioner, Joe Weider, have worked out the proper method to fully develop every muscle in the body. Serious bodybuilders know that strict form is the single most important factor in making progress.
Injury prevention is as much a part
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RUNNING VS WEIGHTS
(Continued from page 70)
exercised. But after 15 minutes of steady exercise, your body will have shifted to aerobic metabolism and you’ll be burning fat stores for most of your energy. The long-term benefits of weight training are maximum strength throughout the body, endurance, injury resistance and improved appearance.
A combination of both types of fuel consumption prepares you for all energy situations — for endurance and intensity. Many bodybuilders jog on days off from weight training to help reduce fat for contests. Twenty minutes of jogging three times a week is adequate.
2) Muscular Efficiency. Muscles are involved in any movement the body makes. Two types — smooth, which control internal functions, and cardiac, such as the heart — operate by involuntary nervous reaction. The third type, skeletal muscles, are the ones that benefit from exercise since they respond to voluntary stimuli. Heart muscle is strengthened by endurance exercise, but only as an indirect result of the skeletal muscles’ demand for oxygen. The development of the skeletal muscles is the key to complete fitness.
Fully developed muscles impart strength, endurance and flexibility to their user. Your exercise program should provide the opportunity to tap your maximum potential in these areas.
Strength is the result of meeting ever-increasing workloads by growing. Helping to prevent injuries and resist disease, balanced strength equals all-round conditioning. It’s essential for competition in a wide range of athletic activities.
Joggers develop slightly greater leg strength as a result of their sport, but mostly they experience improved aerobic endurance. Because the muscle is put under a constant stress, rather than progressively greater overloads, after a point of development, the demand for muscle growth ceases. Since jogging is not all-out running, and since fatigue affects form, joggers don’t execute their exercise through a full range of motion. This accounts for jogging’s failure to develop maximum strength. Additionally, a jogger’s lower back and quadriceps tend to get stronger than his or her abdominals and hamstrings. This strength imbalance could be responsible for the muscular discomfort joggers often suffer.
Weight training, through the sport of
From Mike Dayton
the phenomenal strongman who has defied physical limits to survive the choking grip of a hangman’s noose and break apart the steel of police handcuffs!
STRENGTH is more a product of the mind than the muscle. History provides hundreds of examples of the mind’s ability to generate phenomenal strength. Psychologists refer to it as the “flight or fight” syndrome, where threatening circumstances can cause the body to be charged with maximum strength, endurance and tolerance to pain.
llKE DAYTON calls it Chi Mind Control, a term from the martial arts meaning “the internal strength.” His incredible feats of strength defy his 200 pound Mr. America physique, yet he performs them time and time again. You can learn his same technique to powerhouse your workouts, overcome your fears and control your emotions and reactions to pain.
This study of your mind, your body, and the intricate relationship between the two, includes a complete guide of exercises, visualization techniques, personality evaluators, diet and nutritional information to help you find the mental keys to unlock your own internal strength. The course includes a diploma upon completion and comes with a sturdy reference binder for storage.
Still have doubts? No need to. The course carries a money back guarantee if you’re not satisfied. It has already sold over 25,000 copies to satisfied students around the world.
The price is S37.50, complete. We pay postage, tax and handling fees.
□ Enclosed is S37.50 and my commitment towards improvement!
□ Please send more free information.
city, state, zip
Checks and money orders should be payable to Dayton Unlimited. U.S. dollars only. Overseas add SI0.50 for additional airmail postage. Send orders to:
Dayton Unlimited, Inc.
P.O. Box 6410, Concord, CA 94524
Muscle & Fitness 171
|triceps follow this Champion’s arm rou
tine ……………………………….. $5.00CHEST: For armor-plate pecs supported
by a deep rib cage. Cnns provides step-
by-step instructions ……………… $5.00
ABDOMINALS: Hard sculptured abdom
POSING TRUNKS: Designed just for the bodybuilder, they give you the kind of look that wins contests. Available in small, medium and large. Satin Finish Colors: black, white, red.
|royal blue, brown…………………. $19.95Matte Finish Colors: black, while, red, brown, green, light blue, navy, red
coral .. ………………………… $17.50
T-SHIRTS: What it says is true of Ihe T-Shirt and of you when you wear it. Best quality, signed by Chris, with special photo process which will create a sensation in Ihe gym or on Ihe street. Sizes- small, medium, large and extra large. Choose from navy, light blue and
TANK TOPS AND SHORTS. When the occasion calls for tank top and shorts, enjoy
|the same top quality 100% cotton, this physique-flattering ensemble, signed by Chris. Sizes: small, medium, large and extra large. Choose from navy, light blue, beige, red and white.Tank Top & Shorts Combo……… $16.00
TankTopOnly ……………………. 8.00
Shorls Only ………………………. 9.95
WORKOUT AND JOGGING SUIT: Tell them your story: “UNDER CONSTRUCTION, PARDON MY SWEAT” Sizes, medium. large and extra large.
Royal Blue 100% cotton…………. $21.95
TopOnly …………………………. 11.95
CALVES: Learn me secrets behind the development of Ihe world’s greatest
THIGHS: Chris shows how to add mass. sweep and definition to develop truly
remarkable thighs $5.00
BACK: There are more muscles in the back than any maior bodyparl. Chris’ methods will bring all of them out in bold
DELTOIDS: Cap your dells wilh extra inches of granite-hard muscle . $5.00 ARMS: For shaping the best biceps and
|To Believe It” Name|
Send check or money order only. Add $1.50 postage and handling, foreign orders $3.00. California residents add 6% sales tax.
Chris Dickerson, Inc.
P.O.Box 1123 Santa Monica, CA 90406
Enclosed is my payment to cover the items checked on the right side:
D COURSE 1-CALVES $5.00
□ COURSE 2-THIGHS $5.00
□ COURSE 3-BACK $5.00
□ COURSE 4-DELTOIDS $5.00
□ COURSE 5-ARMS $5.00
□ COURSE 6-CHEST $5.00
D COURSE 7-ABDOMINALS… $5.00
□ Chris Dickerson POSING TRUNKS
Insert Second Choice
Matte Finish $17.50
Satin Finish $19.95
□ “You’ve Got To Feel T-SHIRT: Size
|D TANK TOP AND SHORTSSize Color n TANK TOP ONI Y: Size||
|n SHORTS ONI Y- Si7P|
|D WORKOUT SUITSi7P||
|n top riNi y Si7<>||
D 8X10 Glossy COLOR PHOTO _ $5.00
forever in trouble as a kid,” he told me. “I didn’t consciously want to make trouble, it just seemed to find me. Still I hadn’t turned out too rotten.”
In much the same way that Presley had used his singing to change the habits of a generation, so Rory hopes to use his muscles for good. If he can encourage kids to take a special interest in their physical well-being, maybe he’ll discourage them from a life of crime.
Before Rory and Cynthia said goodbye, he told me he would still like to develop his physique to a point where he weighed 225 pounds in contest condition. People like Bertil Fox made him sick, he said, when they talked about big guys posing like ballerinas. “I’d like to butt up against Bertil when I’m in shape and see who comes off best. With all the muscle he’s got, what he needs now is a posing lesson. I truly believe I can be graceful as a ballet star even at 230. It’s all a question of understanding symmetry and being creative.”
Rory wasn’t crazy about competing anymore. Lately it was becoming increasingly evident that winners followed a certain pattern. Judges appeared to be more influenced by cuts than overall symmetry. Steve Reeves couldn’t win a contest today, even with the form he displayed in ’48. He wouldn’t be sufficiently massive, nor nearly cut enough to please current tastes.
“But what does popularity have to do with symmetry?” asks Leidel-meyer rhetorically. “Either your arms, calves and thighs go well together or they don’t.”
The subject returned to his wife. “I want Cynthia to have a comfortable life. I want to give her a Mercedes, a swimming pool, a nice home. Our kids deserve better than we had. I’ve been asked to do commercials and recently I was offered a part in a movie. But I’m not ready to accept such things at this time. Perhaps I’m being foolish, but finally it might well be that I was meant to get everything I need from bodybuilding. Already, it has given me the self-esteem that no amount of money can buy.”
Rory, the ’82 American Bodybuilding Championships favorite, did not make the trip to New York. He was present at the birth of his child, a bouncing baby girl as pretty as her mom. So we’ll never know how dad might have fared against the amazing Lee Haney. But something tells me their paths will cross one of these days when there isn’t another Leidelmeyer on the way. □
None of the products of Weider Health & Fitness, Inc., are sponsored or approved by the U.S. Olympic Committee, nor are they associated with any activity of the U.S. Olympic Committee.
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DEAR JOE: I want total flex power…and I want
to do it naturally. I am enclosing $ .
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D 1 bottle (9 oz.) Bodybuilding Broth (DYB) $ 7.98
plus $1.50 postage and handling, send $ 9.48
D 2 bottles (9 oz.) Bodybuilding Broth (DYB) $15.96
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MB043 California residenis add 6Vt% sales tax
In Canada and overseas, order from: Weldar Institute, 2875 Bates Rd., Montreal Canada, P.Q.H3S1B7